In the declaration of independence, prominent among the 27 “repeated injuries and usurpations” Thomas Jefferson charged King George with having imposed on the colonies was that he: “endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.”
At the start of the Revolutionary War, the Ohio River and Appalachian Mountains marked the frontier between the colonists and the Native Americans. In the fall of 1775, the Continental Congress sent a delegation to Fort Pitt to meet with the chiefs of the tribes of the Ohio River valley: the Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot, Mingo and Ottawa. Representatives of the Iroquois Confederation (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora) also attended but did not join in the discussions.
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What If: Malta Invasion 1942: By early 1942 various senior German and Italian commanders were calling for the conquest of Malta. The dilemma was in finding forces for such an operation. This is our analysis of how those forces were indeed gathered, but were then squandered elsewhere than Malta to little good effect for the Axis.
The American Revolution in the West: In the Declaration of Independence, one of the 27 “repeated injuries and usurpations” charged against King George was that he had “endeavored to bring [against us] merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.” This is our analysis of the campaigns that made up the western front of the revolution.
The Mongol Invasions of Japan: A Strategic & Operational Analysis: Kublai Khan launched two failed invasions of Japan. Its conquest was not vital for his empire, but it became critical to his personal prestige and the seeming viability of his dynasty. To maintain internal stability, he needed to keep almost all his Mongol personnel in China, expanding beyond there using armies mostly composed of previously defeated enemies.
The Cuito Cuanavale Campaign The 1987–88 Battle of Cuito: Cuanavale has been variously described as the biggest battle in Africa since World War II, South Africa’s Stalingrad, or the place where 50,000 Cuban-led troops were decisively beaten. In fact, it was a six-month campaign that ended in something of a stalemate. Here is our analysis.